• Dr. Saima Parveen Women University Swabi



Afghanistan as pivotal in this region as it provides a land bridge between Greater Central Asia northern and southern parts and between Middle East and Greater Central Asia as well. The US intervention in Afghanistan has opened a channel for Beijing geo-political objectives in Afghanistan. China’s economic interests are connected with Afghanistan and investing in Afghanistan’s infrastructure development but threats from Islamic extremism has inundated the region which has been infested into Xinjiang province with enhanced drug trade. This research investigates the interests of China through analytical and qualitative approaches. China’s interests in Afghanistan revolve around various geo-political imperatives. China has longer presence and investment plans in Afghanistan because Afghanistan has huge oil and natural gas reserves in northern part. Besides, China wants an access to natural gas supply of Central Asia and Afghanistan. China is interested in stable Afghanistan that has military capability to secure its borders. For regional aspiration China is to counter United States hegemonic designs. Besides, the other significant contour is having foothold in Pakistan especially through strategic designs in Balochistan.


Alamgir, M. (2011, September 16) Strategic Importance of Gwadar Port for Pakistan.

International Relations.

Bao, Q. Z. (1999, March 13) The Realities to Be Faced in China in the Wake of the Dramatic

Changes in the USSR and Strategic Choices. FBIS-CHI Daily Report Annex. p. 1.

Becquelin, N. (2004, June) Staged Development in Xinjiang. China Quarterly, Vol. 178. pp. 358-

BP Statistical Review of World of World Energy. (2012, June). Full Text Online at

Broomfield, V. E. (2003, May) Perceptions of Dangers: The China Threat Theory. Journal of

Contemporary China 12 (35) pp. 265- 84.

Coll, S. (2004) Ghost Wars: The Secret History of the CIA, Afghanistan and Bin Laden from

Soviet Invasion to, 2001. (New York: The Penguin Press). p. 66.

Curtov, M and Hwang, M.B. (1998) China’s Security: The New Roles of Military ( Boulder: CO

and London: Lynne Rienner)pp. 66-67.

Fallow, J. (2012) Chinese Airborne (New York: Pentheon), p. 190.

Franks, T. (2004) American Soldiers (New York: Regan Books) pp.281, 286-287.

Feng, H. (2007) Chinese Strategic Culture and Foreign Policy Decisionmaking (London:

Routledge) ch.2. p. 27.

Fueller, G. and Starr, F. (2003) The Xinjiang Problem. (Central Asia Caucasus Institute, Johns

Hopkins University) p. 9.

Hopkirk, P. (1994) The Great Game: the Struggle for Empire in Central Asia (Tokyo: Kodonsha


Lattimore, O. (1940) Inner Asian Frontiers of China (Boston, MA: Beacon Press)p. 171.

Mark, B. (1999). Chinese Policy Towards Russia and the Central Asian Republics. Santa

Monica, CA, RAND Corporation. p. 5.

Mark, B. (1999) Chinese Policy Towards Russia and the Central Asian Republics, Santa Monica,

CA, USA, RAND Corporation. p. 9.

Mead, R. W. (2004, March/April) America Sticky Power. Foreign Policy 83(2) pp. 46-53.

Mughal, O. (2009, January 14). Gwadar Port: A Great Development Project or a Great Game?

Pant. V. H. (2012, Winter) ‘The Pakistan Thorn in China-India-US Relations’ Washington

Quarterly 35, no. 1. p. 86.

Pirani, S. (2012) Central Asian and Caspian Gas Production and the Contraints on Exports. The

Oxford Institute for Energy Studies. p. 129.

Strategy,” Xiandai Guoi, appearing as “Post-Cold War Security Strategy Examine”, World


China’s Foreign Affairs (2003) (Beijing: Department of Policy Planning, Ministry of Foreign

Affairs, PRC), pp. 62-63.

Roberts, J. (2003) Caspean Oil and Gas: How far have We Come and Where are We Going in Sally Cummings (ed), Oil, Transition and Security in Central Asia (New York: Routledge


Small, A. (2015) China Pakistan Axis: Asia New Geopolitics. New York: Oxford University


Swanstrom, N. (2002) China and Xinjiang after September 11. Nordic Institute for Asian Studies

no. 3.

Swanstrom, N. (2001) China Conquers Central Asia through Trade Analyst (Johns Hoplins

University SAIS).

wang, K. Y. (2010) Harmony and War: Confucian Culture and Chinese Power Politics (New

York: Columbia University Press), p. 178.

Xuetong, Y. (1995, November 07). “Economic Security, Good Neighbor Policy Emphasized in

Post-Cold War Security

Xu, X. (2000) Oil and Gas Linkages between Central Asia and China.

Xinwen, Z. (1998, January 21) Chinese Think-Tank on Central Asia, NATO. She News Agency

in BBC Summary of World Broadcasts. p. G/2.

Woodward, B. (2003) Bush at War (New York, Siman and Shuster, 2003)

Additional Files



How to Cite

Parveen, D. S. (2022). CHINA GEO-POLITICAL CONTOURS IN AFGHANISTAN. Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS), 3(1), 102–115.