Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) <p>Journal of Pakistan-China Studies publishes research papers related to China Studies. The following objectives of the China Study Center(CSC), University of Peshawar (UOP) reflect the scope of the Journal of Pakistan China Studies: to promote research on Pakistan-China relations; develop expertise on Chinese language, history, culture, and civilization; focus on people to people contacts and regional integration; fathom the nature and feature of China and Pakistan joint projects like BRI, CPEC. China Study Center, publishes the Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS), which is annual Triple-blind peer reviewed research journal. JPCS is publishing cutting edge research in the area of Pakistan-China Studies related to but not limited to Pakistan-China Relations, shared future, BRI, CPEC, Political Science, International Relations, Peace and Conflict Studies, Education and Development Studies. The journal welcomes original and quality manuscripts from Pakistan-based and foreign scholars, including students working towards their MS/MPhil and Phd degrees.</p> <p>The China Study Center (CSC) endeavors to deeply understand China and Pakistan relations, institutional linkages, and people to people contacts between the two countries. The CSC through JPCS seeks to make the University of Peshawar a rich source of knowledge on China. JPCS is an endeavor to deepen local understanding of Chinese society, economy, culture, language, political system and vice versa. The JPCS aims at achieving continuous progress through research and dissemination of information about China and Pakistan in a manner that is in tune with the expectations of the field experts. The JPCS draws from the cultural, intellectual, and economic resources of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to enrich and strengthen its panorama and strives for excellence in research in its domain. The CSC strives through JPCS to become an excellent Center in research, learning and study in the region on China by producing research as per highest international standard. The JPCS expects articles from research scholars with analytical thinking, innovative research methodologies, effective argumentation and written communication that are critical for quality research in Pakistan-China Studies in an increasingly globalized marketplace.</p> China Study Center, University of Peshawar en-US Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) 2790-8887 <p><img src="" alt="" width="320" height="112" /></p> CORRIDOR POLITICS IMEC VS. BRI: ANOTHER GEOPOLITICAL FACE-OFF IN U.S.-CHINA RIVALRY <p><em>In a rapidly changing global landscape shaped by the COVID-19 pandemic, the Ukrainian conflict, and the Palestinian crisis, heightened geopolitical tensions are pushing nations toward strategic alliances and economic collaborations. One such initiative, the "India – Middle East – Europe Corridor" (IMEC), has emerged as a potential alternative to China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), which plays a central role in China's global influence. The intensifying rivalry between the United States and China is a defining feature of contemporary geopolitics. IMEC's potential implementation could compel Middle Eastern nations to make strategic choices, particularly within specific industries, possibly hindering socioeconomic progress in the region. This research paper takes a neorealist perspective to analyze the U.S.-China rivalry and conducts a comparative analysis of BRI and IMEC and exploring whether the IMEC poses a challenge to the BRI within the global geopolitical and geo -economic context. Ultimately, the paper concludes that IMEC, especially against the backdrop of the 2023 Palestinian crisis, does not present a substantial threat to the BRI.</em></p> Arhama Siddiqa Copyright (c) 2024 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 1 1 22 10.55733/jpcs.v4i1.69 SINO-INDIAN GEOSTRATEGIC COMPETITION FOR CONTROLLING THE BLUE ECONOMY OF IRANIAN PORTS AND ITS IMPACTS ON PAKISTAN <p>In the modern world, trade is one of the key tools used to strengthen the economy and lay the foundation for a country to achieve regional or global hegemony. It is widely acknowledged that, now maritime security has surfaced as a bone of contention between India and China which are competing with one another in the region to seek safe and cheap routes to meet their energy needs. India is leveraging its strategically important location as well as the support of the US to balance China's influence, while China is adopting its "string of pearls" strategy to connect the important choke points of the world. Therefore, this article analyzes the interests of China and India in Iranian ports, particularly in Chabahar Port, and their efforts to secure access to the region's resources and markets. It also evaluates that the Sino-Indian competition for controlling Iran's ports could have significant implications for Pakistan, including economic opportunities and challenges, geopolitical risks, and strategic choices. Moreover, this paper intends to unfold the competition through the lens of a realist approach and unwind the ground realities by using a spectrum of qualitative research methodology.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Sino-Indian, maritime security, Pakistan, Iranian Ports, Chabahar,</p> MEHBOOB ALI KHAN ziyad Alam Muhammad Ibtasam Ali Shah Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 1 103 119 10.55733/jpcs.v4i1.66 THE ROLE OF CEPC INFRASTRUTURE PROJECTS ON RESIDENTS’ QUALITY OF LIFE: THE MEDIATING ROLE OF THE TOURISM DEVELOPMENT <p>The research objective was to study the effects of CPEC on the resident’s quality of life and exploring the mediating role of the tourism development. To obtained the study objectives a questionnaire was designed to collect the data from the study area using random sampling. The current research utilizes PLS-SEM for empirical analysis by using SmartPLS 4 software. The results found that CPEC has a substantial impact on the resident’s quality of life and tourism development. Also, this study demonstrates that significant positive connection between tourism development and quality of life of the study area. Therefore, based on the PLS-SEM results, the government should expedite the CPEC projects and start new projects in Gilgit-Baltistan. However, to counteract the negative environmental effects of the CPEC, appropriate long-term sustainable planning is needed. Last but not least, energy crises is the main factor affecting tourism in the area. Therefore, government should initiate a mega project of energy to overcome the energy crises in Hunza.</p> Faqeer Muhammad Maria Kiran Khalid Mehmood Alam Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 1 65 76 10.55733/jpcs.v4i1.63 GWADAR DEEP SEAPORT: CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN CONTEXT OF BALOCHISTAN <p>The paper “Gwadar Deep Seaport is an outstanding opportunity for the development of Balochistan” intricately explores the port's potential as a transformative force in Balochistan's development. The paper meticulously assesses a range of opportunities and challenges. It spotlights the port's economic benefits, driving trade and growth, while enhancing regional connectivity and strategic prowess.</p> <p>Embedded within these opportunities are challenges dissected with precision. The paper rigorously evaluates security threats, accounting for terror risks and external influences. It navigates the complex interplay of Balochistan insurgency, topographical nuances, and weather vagaries, which could impact the port's voyage towards success.</p> <p>For policymakers, researchers, and stakeholders alike, this study serves as a guiding compass, steering through the intertwined journey of Gwadar's potential and Balochistan's advancement. It intricately weaves the narrative of possibilities and hindrances, showcasing Gwadar Deep Seaport as an unparalleled avenue propelling Balochistan towards an era of remarkable development.</p> Kousar BiBi Ayesha Alam Bakhtiar Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 1 40 50 10.55733/jpcs.v4i1.61 CHINA-PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR LOCAL INHABITANTS OF GWADAR, BALOCHISTAN <p>This research explores the opportunities and challenges provided by the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), focusing on its positive and negative impacts on the economy of the local inhabitants of Gwadar. Gwadar, being the hub of CPEC, has gained national and international attention. This study strives to explore the socio-economic impacts of CPEC on inhabitants, and how the local people perceive the impacts of mega-development projects on their lives and livelihood. This study has adopted qualitative research methodology with grounded theory for data collection and analysis. Extensive ethnographic fieldwork has been carried out in Gwadar city and data has been collected through a variety of methods, including personal observations and in-depth interviews with sixty-six participants belonging to various groups - fisherfolks, relocated people, daily wage laborers, local political workers, government officials, small businesspersons, and students. The findings demonstrate that at the beginning of the project, the inhabitants had much higher expectations of improvement in their socio-economic well-being; however, over time, they faced multiple challenges to their livelihood, such as poverty, vulnerability, relocation, lack of marketable skills, scarcity of potable water, and electricity load shedding, which, according to local inhabitants, has made their lives miserable in many aspects. The locals appreciate the mega projects and have benefited in many ways, but feel isolated and excluded from the process, leading to feelings of alienation in their city. The study recommended policy measures for mainstreaming the local people into the growing economy of Gwadar.</p> Zahid Ali Noor Sanauddin Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 1 77 102 10.55733/jpcs.v4i1.60 THE LEASE AGREEMENT ISSUE OF THE HAMBANTOTA AND GWADAR PORT: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS <p><em>This paper broadly examines the lease issue of the Chinese sponsored ports in Sri-Lanka and Pakistan. The introduction part elaborates The Belt and Road Initiative of China which aims to promote regional connectivity and the South Asian developing countries are the main hub of these development projects. The ports of South Asian countries are acting as pearls in the maritime routes of Arabian Sea. The study briefly explains the Mahan’s theory of sea dominancy and how China took inspiration from that theory to develop the sea routes to expend the maritime trade. The strategic importance of the Hambantota and Gwadar port has been discussed in the perspective of lessening the traveling time and cost of Chinese trade and also how the development of these ports can benefit the struggling economy of Sri-Lanka and Pakistan. This paper also highlights the fact that how the political orientation and instability of a state can led to tough decision by the government in case of the Hambantota port. &nbsp;Comprehensive information about the lease of the ports and the myths and realities of debt trap is underlined in the study. The future prospect of the Gwadar port covers the concerns about political Think Tanks affiliating it to the Hambantota port issue. The path forward explores the ideas that what should be the precautionary measures during lease issues and the lesson for other partner countries who intend to avail the loan for the projects.&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;</em></p> Dr Sabahat Jaleel Husna Noor Bakhtiar Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 1 51 64 10.55733/jpcs.v4i1.59 EXAMINING BIBLIOMETRIC PATTERNS OF THE BELT AND ROAD INITIATIVE IN THE CONTEXT OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS: HIGHLIGHTING ALIGNMENT WITH SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS <p class="selectable-text" style="margin: 0in; margin-bottom: .0001pt;"><span class="selectable-text1">The Belt and Road Initiative presents a distinctive opportunity not only to bolster economic relations with partner nations but also to serve as a catalyst for regional economic growth. This study aims to delineate the advancement in research articles authored by various contributors, originating from diverse journals and countries, all of which are indexed in the SCOPUS database over the past two decades. The data is scrutinized employing VOS viewer software, enabling the visualization of co-occurrence maps among authors and countries. Additionally, the publications are also categorized based on the United Nations' 17 sustainable development goals. The findings elucidate that while the official inception of the concept was in 2013, the literature on One Belt One Road predates this period. However, a noticeable surge in publications occurred from 2014 onwards. Among the 6520 publications identified on the topic, 1613 are relevant to the domains of business, management, accounting, economics, econometrics, and finance. After refining the publication type to "article," the final tally stands at 1038 research articles published thus far. The study also discerns that a significant portion of these publications emanated from countries such as China, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Notably, there exists a scarcity of literature from Belt and Road partner countries especially from Central Asia and South-South regions. Given their pivotal role as direct stakeholders, their insights could be invaluable in generating research with tangible real-world implications.</span></p> Fouzia Hadi Ali Sabra Munir Copyright (c) 2023 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) 2023-12-29 2023-12-29 4 1 23 39 10.55733/jpcs.v4i1.57 THE SOUTH CHINA SEA'S NINE DASH LINE: KEY DISPUTES AND CHINA’S HISTORICAL RIGHTS CLAIMS <p>On the official sovereignty map of China, there is a u-shaped line, which covers an area of about 2.1 million square kilometers in the South China Sea(SCS)region. The Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, and other interested countries have raised many questions about the nine-dash line in recent years. The article has studied such materials as the official statement of China, the treaties and conventions signed by China, and the arbitration award obtained from the Philippines' lawsuit to the Permanent Court of Arbitration(PCA) in 2013 and has made an in-depth study of the legal nature, types of rights and specific rights of the nine-dash line. The study concluded that, first, China's delimitation of the nine-dash line is in line with international customary law and international practice, and this action does not violate the territorial sea regime of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea(UNCLOS); Second, the nine-dash line in the SCS is not the "national boundary", but it is China's "island ownership line", and also the dividing line between China's maritime rights in the SCS and other countries; Third, the historical rights that China strongly advocates include but are not limited to fishing rights, navigation rights, and oil and gas resources rights; Fourth, the international community should attach importance to and respect China's historical rights view of the nine-dash line sea area. Any ruling that does not respect China's historical rights will not be accepted by China</p> Ding Hongbin Ihsan Ullah Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 4 1 67 86 10.55733/jpcs.v3i1.53 CHINA-PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR AND GEOSTRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE MIDDLE EAST <p>Regional connectivity is one of the aims of the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). Positive effects of CPEC will be felt throughout the region, including in Iran, Afghanistan, the Central Asian Republic, and beyond. Improved roads, rail, &nbsp;air transportation, more frequent and free exchanges of growth, people-to-people contact, increased understanding through academic, cultural, and regional knowledge, increased trade and business activity, increased production and movement of energy for more efficient business operations, and increased cooperation based on a win-win model will all contribute to a more connected and integrated region.&nbsp;The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is an important step toward regionalizing the global economy. It created a framework for harmony, growth, and mutual benefit.&nbsp;The China–Pakistan Economic Corridor represents future prosperity, stability, and peace in the area. We analyses how CPEC will impact China's economic and geopolitical ties to the Middle Eastern countries, focusing on the Gulf Cooperation Council states (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) and Iran. Most of these nations rely heavily on commerce with China and export great amounts of oil and natural gas to China. These countries are also crucial investment partners for China because of the large amounts of money generated from oil exports.</p> Huang Minxing Muaaz Sayed Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 4 1 37 52 10.55733/jpcs.v3i1.50 HIGH QUALITY DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR AND RECONSTRUCTION OF THE GLOBAL GOVERNANCE SYSTEM <p>In order to cope with the unprecedented changes in a century, the "Belt and Road" Initiative (BRI) co-construction project with the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) as the flagship has become an important carrier for economic growth and reconstruction of the global industrial chain and supply chain, which is leading the reconstruction of the global economic governance system. Anatomy of the internal relationship between the high-quality development of CPEC and global economic governance, analysis of the important value of the corridor to the stable development of regional economic society and its internal driving force for stable and long-term development, and clarification of the internal mechanism of corridor investment operation and the global industrial chain and supply chain reconstruction will help to further promote the co-construction of BRI and provide useful reference for building an open, linked and more inclusive world economy and jointly building Human Community with a Shared Future with political mutual trust, economic integration and cultural tolerance</p> Chen Ruihua Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 4 1 1 17 10.55733/jpcs.v3i1.47