Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) 2023-03-06T02:28:53-05:00 Editor Open Journal Systems <p>Journal of Pakistan-China Studies publishes research papers related to China Studies. The following objectives of the China Study Center(CSC), University of Peshawar (UOP) reflect the scope of the Journal of Pakistan China Studies: to promote research on Pakistan-China relations; develop expertise on Chinese language, history, culture, and civilization; focus on people to people contacts and regional integration; fathom the nature and feature of China and Pakistan joint projects like BRI, CPEC. China Study Center, publishes the Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS), which is annual Triple-blind peer reviewed research journal. JPCS is publishing cutting edge research in the area of Pakistan-China Studies related to but not limited to Pakistan-China Relations, shared future, BRI, CPEC, Political Science, International Relations, Peace and Conflict Studies, Education and Development Studies. The journal welcomes original and quality manuscripts from Pakistan-based and foreign scholars, including students working towards their MS/MPhil and Phd degrees.</p> <p>The China Study Center (CSC) endeavors to deeply understand China and Pakistan relations, institutional linkages, and people to people contacts between the two countries. The CSC through JPCS seeks to make the University of Peshawar a rich source of knowledge on China. JPCS is an endeavor to deepen local understanding of Chinese society, economy, culture, language, political system and vice versa. The JPCS aims at achieving continuous progress through research and dissemination of information about China and Pakistan in a manner that is in tune with the expectations of the field experts. The JPCS draws from the cultural, intellectual, and economic resources of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to enrich and strengthen its panorama and strives for excellence in research in its domain. The CSC strives through JPCS to become an excellent Center in research, learning and study in the region on China by producing research as per highest international standard. The JPCS expects articles from research scholars with analytical thinking, innovative research methodologies, effective argumentation and written communication that are critical for quality research in Pakistan-China Studies in an increasingly globalized marketplace.</p> THE SOUTH CHINA SEA'S NINE DASH LINE: KEY DISPUTES AND CHINA’S HISTORICAL RIGHTS CLAIMS 2023-02-27T00:21:06-05:00 Ding Hongbin Ihsan Ullah <p>On the official sovereignty map of China, there is a u-shaped line, which covers an area of about 2.1 million square kilometers in the South China Sea(SCS)region. The Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, and other interested countries have raised many questions about the nine-dash line in recent years. The article has studied such materials as the official statement of China, the treaties and conventions signed by China, and the arbitration award obtained from the Philippines' lawsuit to the Permanent Court of Arbitration(PCA) in 2013 and has made an in-depth study of the legal nature, types of rights and specific rights of the nine-dash line. The study concluded that, first, China's delimitation of the nine-dash line is in line with international customary law and international practice, and this action does not violate the territorial sea regime of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea(UNCLOS); Second, the nine-dash line in the SCS is not the "national boundary", but it is China's "island ownership line", and also the dividing line between China's maritime rights in the SCS and other countries; Third, the historical rights that China strongly advocates include but are not limited to fishing rights, navigation rights, and oil and gas resources rights; Fourth, the international community should attach importance to and respect China's historical rights view of the nine-dash line sea area. Any ruling that does not respect China's historical rights will not be accepted by China</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) CHINA-PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR AND GEOSTRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE MIDDLE EAST 2023-02-28T09:26:45-05:00 Huang Minxing Muaaz Sayed <p>Regional connectivity is one of the aims of the China–Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). Positive effects of CPEC will be felt throughout the region, including in Iran, Afghanistan, the Central Asian Republic, and beyond. Improved roads, rail, &nbsp;air transportation, more frequent and free exchanges of growth, people-to-people contact, increased understanding through academic, cultural, and regional knowledge, increased trade and business activity, increased production and movement of energy for more efficient business operations, and increased cooperation based on a win-win model will all contribute to a more connected and integrated region.&nbsp;The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) is an important step toward regionalizing the global economy. It created a framework for harmony, growth, and mutual benefit.&nbsp;The China–Pakistan Economic Corridor represents future prosperity, stability, and peace in the area. We analyses how CPEC will impact China's economic and geopolitical ties to the Middle Eastern countries, focusing on the Gulf Cooperation Council states (Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates) and Iran. Most of these nations rely heavily on commerce with China and export great amounts of oil and natural gas to China. These countries are also crucial investment partners for China because of the large amounts of money generated from oil exports.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) HIGH QUALITY DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR AND RECONSTRUCTION OF THE GLOBAL GOVERNANCE SYSTEM 2023-02-26T23:58:31-05:00 Chen Ruihua <p>In order to cope with the unprecedented changes in a century, the "Belt and Road" Initiative (BRI) co-construction project with the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) as the flagship has become an important carrier for economic growth and reconstruction of the global industrial chain and supply chain, which is leading the reconstruction of the global economic governance system. Anatomy of the internal relationship between the high-quality development of CPEC and global economic governance, analysis of the important value of the corridor to the stable development of regional economic society and its internal driving force for stable and long-term development, and clarification of the internal mechanism of corridor investment operation and the global industrial chain and supply chain reconstruction will help to further promote the co-construction of BRI and provide useful reference for building an open, linked and more inclusive world economy and jointly building Human Community with a Shared Future with political mutual trust, economic integration and cultural tolerance</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) FORECASTING LINEAR DYNAMICS OF SINO-PAK RELATIONS (2023-2038) 2023-02-24T04:43:06-05:00 Raza Rahman Khan Qazi Yousaf Ali Imran Khan <p style="font-weight: 400;">The relations between China and Pakistan have frequently been compared to the Himalayas in height, the Indian Ocean in depth, and even the relationship between brothers in terms of sweetness. The relationship between China and Pakistan has often been referred to by its leaders as a "all-weather friendship.". However, in the final analysis relations between and among states are determined by respective national interests, or, to put it another way, by reason rather than passion. The framework of national interest must therefore be used in any analysis of Sino-Pak relations. In order to forecast where Sino-Pak relations will be in the next 10years, the article gives an overview of Sino-Pak relations using a linear paradigm. The article has two sections. The first section charts out the trajectory of incumbent relations and its foreshadowing ties between the two countries in the third term of President Xi Jinping. The second sections more closely focuses on the trajectory of relations over 10 year period.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) AN ANALYSIS OF THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR 2023-03-06T01:45:48-05:00 Sayed zubair Shah Sakeena <p>Economic Integration, economic development and integration reduce discrimination, taxation, value limits, and restrictions on the transfer of goods between different areas and regions. As a result, the integration is in the process of becoming more political. Political motives may be the first step towards economic integration, and similarly, if the first motives are economic gain, the need for political unity may emerge over time. To improve communication, the Economic Corridor concept is used into foreign policy activities and coordination as it supports economic growth at the national and international level and strengthen regional integration. The emergence of economic channels in South Asia is a relatively recent phenomenon, with the CPEC serving as the most developed example at the moment. The study is a mixed study where main focused on qualitative and quantitative study and also analyzed primary and secondary sources.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) IMPACT OF POLICY UNCERTAINTY ON TRADE AND WELFARE EVIDENCE FROM PAKISTAN AND CHINA 2023-03-06T02:28:53-05:00 Sajida Zareen Amjid Amin <p><em>The impact of policy uncertainty on exports and imports (trade) between Pakistan and China is estimated in this study and the impact of trade on economic welfare is analyzed. S</em><em>econdary data from 1972 to 2018 is taken from WDI. Pooled OLS is applied to achieve the study objectives. </em><em>The impact of change in Policy Uncertainty (PU) between Pakistan and China is negative and significant. It is concluded that when policy uncertainty increases exports and imports (trade) between Pakistan and the China decreases because the trading partner of the home country feels insecure about their exported and imported products which affects the exports and imports (trade) negatively. ARMA Likelihood model is applied to check the impact of trade on economic welfare of the country. Results show that the impact is positive and significant. It is recommended that exports to Pakistan will increase if policy uncertainty is removed. Reducing tariff policy uncertainty will increase the competitiveness of Pakistan and China due to which the quality of production will be increased and Trade will improve.</em></p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) DEVELOPMENT OF XINJIANG AND GWADAR PORT 2023-02-23T04:17:28-05:00 Kausar Takrim Muhammad Kamran Muhammad Mumtaz <p>There is no denying to the significance of natural resources in the growth of the economy. There is not much that can be done in the economic sphere without sufficient raw materials. This is the rationale behind prioritising the extraction of natural resources from conveniently accessible places over those that require more effort. China follows the same model and has high-speed expansion in coastal regions, leaving inland regions in the dust. Rich in energy resources Xinjiang is ready for the booming development like the other regions of China. However, the major challenge in this development is “Sea port”. Abundant in energy sources, Xinjiang, like the other areas of China, is prepared for rapid development. However, "Sea port" is the main obstacle to its development. Xinjiang is one of China's most ecologically sensitive regions since it is one of the driest locations and is the furthest away from any ocean or sea. China aims to connect Xinjiang to global markets through Pakistan's Gwadar port in order to promote rapid economic development. In actuality, China is interested in expanding Gwadar port for economic reasons. The growing importance of Central Asia's oil resources, China's rising energy needs from the Persian Gulf, and China's "go west" programme for its western area are among the reasons for China to assist Pakistan in the development of Gwadar port. The paper argues that <em>China will choose Gwadar port as a gate way for import and export of Xinjiang’s products instead of its own faraway eastern ports.</em></p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) CHINA GEO-POLITICAL CONTOURS IN AFGHANISTAN 2023-02-28T04:36:16-05:00 Saima Parveen <p>Afghanistan as pivotal in this region as it provides a land bridge between Greater Central Asia northern and southern parts and between Middle East and Greater Central Asia as well. The US intervention in Afghanistan has opened a channel for Beijing geo-political objectives in Afghanistan. China’s economic interests are connected with Afghanistan and investing in Afghanistan’s infrastructure development but threats from Islamic extremism has inundated the region which has been infested into Xinjiang province with enhanced drug trade. This research investigates the interests of China through analytical and qualitative approaches. China’s interests in Afghanistan revolve around various geo-political imperatives. China has longer presence and investment plans in Afghanistan because Afghanistan has huge oil and natural gas reserves in northern part. Besides, China wants an access to natural gas supply of Central Asia and Afghanistan. China is interested in stable Afghanistan that has military capability to secure its borders. For regional aspiration China is to counter United States hegemonic designs. Besides, the other significant contour is having foothold in Pakistan especially through strategic designs in Balochistan.</p> 2022-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR: A VOYAGE TO SHARED DESTINY 2022-03-25T01:13:10-04:00 Muaaz Sayed <p>The development of numerous ventures which includes organizational structures, growths, and services, has been documented for the period of a long time as an essential part of the politics of the globe. It is quite evident that the centre of financial power is transforming from West to East. Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has provided Pakistan and its surrounded countries with prominent opportunities through establishing and participating in the platform for masses in Central, West, South Asia, Middle East, and Africa. China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a flagship project that is part of BRI. CPEC is the typical appearance of the conjunction of geo-strategic and geo-economic benefits of the two partners. Whereas the contemporary financial prudence would fulfill the financial benefits of Pakistan and China to enhance the development through mutual benefit in organizational structures &amp; would correspond the efforts to secure common adversaries in forthcoming. CPEC is the significant initiative to establish energy, highway, port infrastructure &amp; to expand financial networks among both countries. As this initiative has been acknowledged in Pakistan and China but there are various problems which equal partners must deal with cooperation, devotion, hard work, and with use of magnificent skills. The paper focuses on the development of CPEC and the benefits that are accomplished by both states. It also shed light on the geostrategic importance of Pakistan. The economic corridor is highly valued by Pakistan, and it has been signified in the terms of mutual benefit of economic and political growth</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) THE SINO-AFGHAN RELATIONS IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 2022-03-25T03:34:38-04:00 Shabnam Siddiqi <p>This paper provides a brief information about history of relations between China and Afghanistan from ancient past to the present era. The collected data relies both on primary and secondary sources. From past to the present China-Afghan relations have always cordial and friendly. Trade relations between both countries date back to the ancient times of Han dynasty 3<sup>rd</sup> century BC and trade route was the beneficial silk road. Currently both countries have embassies in Beijing and Kabul, and both share a 76 km narrow border. Apart from sharing a border they also share same historical sites and shared same religion and cultural heritage centuries ago. there was a time when some of the well-known provinces of Afghanistan was part of Chinese protectorate. moreover, silk road is another important element which links the two states together. Trade, immigration and cultural exchange have taken place through silk road for centuries between both nations. Not to mention, relations between China and Afghanistan have been smooth till 1933, however, in 1934 it was slightly deteriorated. Still, soon after that it was again back to normal. China has provided Afghanistan millions of dollars in the form of grants and non-reimbursable grants, apart from that a long-term initiative of reconstruction and development in Afghanistan has been planned by China. China is trying hard to make its neighbor state stable politically as well as economically which at last will have positive impacts on the well-being of herself.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS)