Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) 2022-03-25T03:34:38-04:00 Editor, JPCS Open Journal Systems <p>Journal of Pakistan-China Studies publishes research papers related to China Studies. The following objectives of the China Study Center(CSC), University of Peshawar (UOP) reflect the scope of the Journal of Pakistan China Studies: to promote research on Pakistan-China relations; develop expertise on Chinese language, history, culture, and civilization; focus on people to people contacts and regional integration; fathom the nature and feature of China and Pakistan joint projects like BRI, CPEC. China Study Center, publishes the Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS), which is annual double-blind peer reviewed research journal. JPCS is publishing cutting edge research in the area of Pakistan-China Studies related to but not limited to Pakistan-China Relations, shared future, BRI, CPEC, Political Science, International Relations, Peace and Conflict Studies, Education and Development Studies. The journal welcomes original and quality manuscripts from Pakistan-based and foreign scholars, including students working towards their MS/MPhil and Phd degrees.</p> <p>The China Study Center (CSC) endeavors to deeply understand China and Pakistan relations, institutional linkages, and people to people contacts between the two countries. The CSC through JPCS seeks to make the University of Peshawar a rich source of knowledge on China. JPCS is an endeavor to deepen local understanding of Chinese society, economy, culture, language, political system and vice versa. The JPCS aims at achieving continuous progress through research and dissemination of information about China and Pakistan in a manner that is in tune with the expectations of the field experts. The JPCS draws from the cultural, intellectual, and economic resources of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan to enrich and strengthen its panorama and strives for excellence in research in its domain. The CSC strives through JPCS to become an excellent Center in research, learning and study in the region on China by producing research as per highest international standard. The JPCS expects articles from research scholars with analytical thinking, innovative research methodologies, effective argumentation and written communication that are critical for quality research in Pakistan-China Studies in an increasingly globalized marketplace.</p> CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR: A VOYAGE TO SHARED DESTINY 2022-03-25T01:13:10-04:00 Muaaz Sayed <p>The development of numerous ventures which includes organizational structures, growths, and services, has been documented for the period of a long time as an essential part of the politics of the globe. It is quite evident that the centre of financial power is transforming from West to East. Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has provided Pakistan and its surrounded countries with prominent opportunities through establishing and participating in the platform for masses in Central, West, South Asia, Middle East, and Africa. China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a flagship project that is part of BRI. CPEC is the typical appearance of the conjunction of geo-strategic and geo-economic benefits of the two partners. Whereas the contemporary financial prudence would fulfill the financial benefits of Pakistan and China to enhance the development through mutual benefit in organizational structures &amp; would correspond the efforts to secure common adversaries in forthcoming. CPEC is the significant initiative to establish energy, highway, port infrastructure &amp; to expand financial networks among both countries. As this initiative has been acknowledged in Pakistan and China but there are various problems which equal partners must deal with cooperation, devotion, hard work, and with use of magnificent skills. The paper focuses on the development of CPEC and the benefits that are accomplished by both states. It also shed light on the geostrategic importance of Pakistan. The economic corridor is highly valued by Pakistan, and it has been signified in the terms of mutual benefit of economic and political growth</p> 2021-12-01T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) THE SINO-AFGHAN RELATIONS IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE 2022-03-25T03:34:38-04:00 Shabnam Siddiqi <p>This paper provides a brief information about history of relations between China and Afghanistan from ancient past to the present era. The collected data relies both on primary and secondary sources. From past to the present China-Afghan relations have always cordial and friendly. Trade relations between both countries date back to the ancient times of Han dynasty 3<sup>rd</sup> century BC and trade route was the beneficial silk road. Currently both countries have embassies in Beijing and Kabul, and both share a 76 km narrow border. Apart from sharing a border they also share same historical sites and shared same religion and cultural heritage centuries ago. there was a time when some of the well-known provinces of Afghanistan was part of Chinese protectorate. moreover, silk road is another important element which links the two states together. Trade, immigration and cultural exchange have taken place through silk road for centuries between both nations. Not to mention, relations between China and Afghanistan have been smooth till 1933, however, in 1934 it was slightly deteriorated. Still, soon after that it was again back to normal. China has provided Afghanistan millions of dollars in the form of grants and non-reimbursable grants, apart from that a long-term initiative of reconstruction and development in Afghanistan has been planned by China. China is trying hard to make its neighbor state stable politically as well as economically which at last will have positive impacts on the well-being of herself.</p> 2020-12-29T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) GALVANIZING DEVELOPMENT IN KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA THROUGH CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC COORIDOR PROJECTS 2022-03-25T03:13:46-04:00 Sabir Ali Rahman Taufiq Nawaz <p>China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is a $ 60+ billion plan between China and Pakistan to build a network of highways, trains, and pipelines between these regions. It is a key project for China's One Belt, One Road Initiative (OBOR) project, also known as the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and New Silk Road. This is a 2,000-mile route from China, across Pakistan, to the newly built Gawadar port, located on the Arabian Sea in the Baluchistan province of Pakistan, connecting from Asia Minor to the Arabian Sea and the Channel of Hormuz. . Several energy and infrastructure development projects will boost economic growth on roads from north to south. This paper is an analysis of the implications of CEPEC projects on KPK.</p> 2020-12-15T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) GEO-ECONOMIC DIMENSION OF THE CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR ITS REGIONAL IMPLICATIONS 2022-03-25T01:00:21-04:00 Sajad Rasool <p>In a zero-sum environment, the power and role of a state is considerably impacted by its location that helps to settle social, economic, and political affairs of the world. Pakistan`s location is very important. On one side, it shares its boundaries with world two big economies i.e., China and India. On the other side, it has access to world’s oil and gas enriched countries (Iran and Central Asian Republics). CPEC is a multibillion project, that is a step towards close relations between China and Pakistan and to bring together South and East Asian Nations to cooperate and collaborate in terms of trade, currency, culture exchange, energy, and infrastructure. Pakistan is sandwiched between two blocs of states. One bloc possesses vast energy resources whereas the other has the need of energies for their growing economies. Hence, CPEC has the potential to connect China, Pakistan, India, Iran, Afghanistan, and Central Asian Republics and further Russia and Europe. In such scenario, the role of Gwadar port is very significant. It is this significance that gives CPEC a buckling status that buckles all the Belt and Road Corridors. Therefore, the project is in turn a reshaping of Super Pangaea in partial economically, politically, and socially. The research attempts to explore the geo-strategic importance of CPEC.</p> 2020-12-15T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR: A WIN-WIN APPROACH IN A ZERO-SUM REGIONAL ENVIRONMENT 2022-03-25T03:19:44-04:00 Zahir Syed Dr Aamer Raza <p>Pakistan, due to its geostrategic existence, became a fulcrum of the massive Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) through CPEC. The project is anticipated to bring socio-political and economic stability in the region. The project is supposed to revitalize the historical Silk Rout to knock down the social, political, and economic hindrance among Asia, Africa, and Europe. This revolutionary and hi-tech Win-Win enterprise is professed as “the harbinger of a new epoch of congruence and integration” (Mehmood &amp; Sabir, 2020) for Pakistan. CPEC is intended to unlatch many commercial routes across China, South and Central Asia, the Middle east and European region. China is going to have quicker and accessible trade rout with Persian Gulf and other resourceful regions. Pakistan would have enhanced economic stability through Gawadar Port Projects, infrastructural development, economic zones, technological assistance, and other energy generating arrangements. This paper tends to discuss the rudiments of CPEC with the geopolitical and strategic reputation considering the zero-sum unipolar world. It throws light over social, political, and economic dimensions of the project with the consideration of political development and policy consistency of the region. The trade deficit and antidots through CPEC between China and Pakistan with the inclusion of other neighbouring States would be addressed. Hurdles and security constrictions regarding the corridor are highlighted and research based conceivable suggestions have proposed which the governments of both the countries ought to consider.</p> <p>Keywords: BRI, CPEC, Win-Win scenario, Silk Rout, Trade Deficit, Gawadar Port Project, Persian Gulf, zero sum game. Meritime Routs</p> 2021-12-15T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) STRENGTHENING OF PAKISTAN AND CHINA RELATIONS THROUGH CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR 2022-03-25T01:11:16-04:00 Bushra Wazir <p align="justify">The friendship of China and Pakistan is as old as they came into being. They maintained a very cordial, friendly and strong bond since its inception. In 1951 after the formal establishment of diplomatic relations, the People’s Republic of China and the Islamic Republic of Pakistan have seen their relationship ever consolidating and progressing. Throughout different historical periods and despite changes with the times, Chinese and Pakistani governments and people have been working hard to enrich the friendship, and have set a model for friendly bilateral ties between different cultures, social systems and ideologies. In 2015 Chinese President Xi Jinping and Pakistani president Nawaz Sharif properly announced the project China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). Both the government of China and Pakistan have deeply realized the importance of developing the CPEC, starting from Kashgar in Xinjiang, China, and reaching Karachi and Gwadar, southern coastal cities in Pakistan via the Khunjerab Pass and several other nodal areas, for cementing China Pakistan economic relations, promoting friendly cooperation and establishing people to people contact between the two countries. CPEC is an economic and development project for the benefit of the people of the region. It will connect Pakistan to Central Asia via the Eurasian Land-Bridge planned under China’s “Belt and Road” initiative. This project is going to be completed in four major phases. Despite all the significance, it faces some challenges from the hostile neighbour of Pakistan: India. Yet, its significance is manifold which covers these challenges.</p> <p> </p> 2020-12-15T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) REGIONAL CONNECTIVITY THROUGH CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC COORIDOR: CHALLENGES AND PROSPECTS 2022-03-24T02:26:30-04:00 Muhammad Khan Taufiq Nawaz <p>China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is primarily designed to provide connectivity between China and Pakistan. Subsequently, this corridor will integrate other regional countries for a larger regional integration and connectivity. Overall, this connectivity and integration will be beneficial for the economic benefits to create a win-win situation for all regional states. Apart from regional connectivity and integration, domestically it will create a linkage between all provinces including provision of connectivity between developed and underdeveloped regions of Pakistan. Whereas this connectivity enables all regional states to benefit from each other economically, the corridor will enhance stakes for all regional states. With all these prospects, CPEC is facing some serious challenges, posed by geopolitical interests of regional and extra-regional states. Resolving the challenges without creating an alarm and conflicting situation is most needed aspect of CPEC. This research is aimed to analyse three aspects; a) the regional integration and connectivity through CPEC, b) the challenges in the timely and successful completion of CPEC, c) how to overcome the challenges for accruing the maximum benefits of CPEC bilaterally, regionally and domestically within Pakistan.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2021-12-15T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES FOR KHYBER PAKHTUNKHWA 2022-03-24T05:04:01-04:00 Hadia Naz <p>China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC), a multi-billion project is considered to be a fate changer not only for Pakistan but for the whole region. It will herald a new era of economic development for different areas including Gilgit-Baltistan, Baluchistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP). The strategic position of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa plays a vital role in regional peace &amp; stability and serve as a gateway to South Asia for China. The project will turn the relatively undeveloped areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa into more fascinating and favorable destination for investors. In CPEC, eight important project are allocated for KP along with several MOUs signed with the province worth US $24 billion. These projects comprise of multiple fields including agriculture, energy and communications etc. Due to the enormity of scale, the project will however also face multiple challenges and hurdles in its implementation. CPEC provide many opportunities for the people of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, coupled with several potential threats and challenges including political unrest, economic crises, security risks and controversies between the center and provincial government. There is a huge need to address those issues which will otherwise negatively affect the implementation of the project. This way the efforts of Pakistan to join the race for economic development and regional connectivity will bear fruit. This study explores the prospects and challenges associated with the implementation of CPEC in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa.</p> <p><strong> Keywords: </strong>CPEC, China, Pakistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, MOUs</p> <p> </p> 2020-12-15T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) TAIWAN: A TURNING POINT BETWEEN GREAT POWERS 2022-03-25T01:11:47-04:00 Sahil Yar Muhammad <p>China has pursued economic development and military modernization for three decades. It has resultantly achieved parity with U.S in many areas including military. Consequently, this has led to an erosion of the deterrence of an ambiguous security guarantee which the U.S had given to Taiwan in case it should come under attack. Uncertain times are upon us. On one hand, precursors to great power rivalries between the U.S and China are being given. On the other, we have unprecedented economic interconnectivity between the aforementioned great powers. Alongside these trends, the increase in Chinese power has led to an increased chance of a Chinese military attack on Taiwan at a time during when the U.S is drawing down its forever wars. What will follow will be the most important challenges to a system which has relatively remained unchanged since the Berlin Wall came down. This research paper will endeavor to understand the possibility of whether China can use the military option on Taiwan as well as the possible options for the U.S if China does do so. This paper will help to understand the contemporary situation if we are brave the storm which is coming.</p> 2021-12-15T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS) THE TALIBAN TAKEOVER IN AFGHANISTAN: WHERE DOES CHINA STAND? 2022-03-25T03:25:51-04:00 Naveed Anjum Zaheer Abbas Chohan Dost Muhammad Barrech <p>The Afghanistan takeover by the Taliban after the hasty and irresponsible US withdrawal starts a new debate among experts over the future of the country under hardcore Taliban. China a next door neighbor of Afghanistan, arguably, views the evolving situation of the country heedfully. The hasty withdrawal of the US for many experts is a part of the great power competition between the US and China where the former calculatedly desires to bring a civil war making Afghanistan an epicenter of terrorism and extremism that invariably would pose a grave threat to the latter’s Belt and Road Imitative (BRI). China, on the other hand, appears to be wary of the East Turkestan Islamic Movement (ETIM). Beijing hopes that the Taliban would crack down on the ETIM. Afghanistan’s conundrum has certainly been creating innumerable challenges for Beijing but China is well known for handling the hard times. As the saying goes that “every challenge creates an equal opportunity”, the emerging challenges of Afghanistan for China also create abundant opportunities. Moreover, the current situation in Afghanistan is also indicating more alliances in the region either new ones or strengthening the old ones. The Taliban want to be a part of China led economic web in the region to resist ongoing economic crisis where the west once again showing its back. This paper, thus, will analyze the threats emanating from Afghanistan to China and will also shed lights on China’s role of preserving its core interest and rebuilding of war-torn Afghanistan.</p> 2021-12-15T00:00:00-05:00 Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Pakistan-China Studies (JPCS)